The sample consists of the following groups of respondents:

  1. Patients: People who have a pacemaker, ICD, or insulin pump.
  2. Physicians: Specialists who are involved in the prescription or implantation of medical implants.
  3. Manufacturers: Producers of medical implants.
  4. Security Experts: Experts on the safety of computers and medical equipment.

As indicated earlier, the emphasis in this study lies on patients. For the survey, only patients are recruited. The surveys are posted on web forums that devote special attention to people with heart disease and diabetes. At the end of the survey, respondents are invited to participate in the in-depth interviews by leaving behind their email addresses.

In addition to the request in the online survey, I approach people from my direct and indirect social networks via email and Facebook. I ask them whether they know someone who meets the criteria of one of the four groups of respondents and is willing to cooperate with this research. Also, physicians, manufacturers, and security experts are approached directly by contacting hospitals, medical clinics, pharmaceutical companies, and businesses engaged in computer security. The in-depth interviews are aimed at all categories of respondents.